Archive for the ‘poultry farming’ Tag
I welcome you to Year 2014,your Turning Point Year. No stories this year, you must take action now to avoid telling stories and blaming the economy and the Federal Government by end of 2014.Nigerians like blaming their governments instead of looking inwards to see what they can do. The action starts with reading all the posts on this blog to know whether the chicken business is the business to do.
This is the 1st post on this blog in Year 2014 and the 34th since November 2010. It is the most informative poultry blog targeting Nigerians who are interested in the business. If you are here for the first time, I want you to take note of some crucial facts as follows:
1)The poultry business is one of the most viable businesses in Nigeria. The market for poultry products especially eggs is large and it is a guaranteed market. The products are always in demand from day to day, and the market for poultry products is far from saturation. This is unlike many of those businesses that Nigerians admire and run after even when their market is densely over saturated.
2)This business has been misunderstood by many Nigerians who dread it, largely based on their own ignorance, misinformation and false myths being peddled about the business. The difference between success and failure in the business is not money but knowledge. More of your knowledge base than money! People say they need money for the business and when they get it, they mess up and begin to wonder what went wrong.Knowledge comes first, so strive to have it. Else, your money goes down the drain and you think that the witches in your village are after you.
3) To do the business successfully, without tears and with minimum upset, you must be conversant about the basic processes. You must be detail oriented and have the time for it and attention. Not everyone can do this business. If you want to know whether you have what it takes to do this business, you are strongly advised to read virtually all the posts on this blog.
It contains the basic details to doing the business well with good results to show.You can also get detailed knowledge elsewhere outside this blog, but make sure you are properly informed. Please do not gamble in the business. it is too risky and unwise to do that.
I stumbled on a thread on nairaland.com where one Nigerian rearing 400 layers aged 9 weeks old, was asking for his profit expectation.Can you imagine that? That is dabbling and gambling.If he does not know the profit expectation, then he does not know what the total costs would be at the end of the day and how to manage them to make profit.
Supposing he does not have adequate finances to sustain the 400 chickens to egg production age,he would soon be stranded if the cash runs out before commencement of egg production. Many Nigerians think that way,jump into a business because they see others doing it without getting the basics right.
In my Report Number 4 on this blog,i explained the criteria to calculate the cost of feeding a fixed number of chickens.The feeding is the major overhead and once you can get it before you start the business,then you are almost through.This is one of the basics many overlook.
4) The processes of the business are simple but require diligence and meticulous application. That is where the problem is with many Nigerians who want overnight riches without any sweat and are ready to jump into any business idea without sound analytical reasoning. Come into poultry business with that mindset, you will have yourself to blame. That is sure!
5) If you are the lazy type, please find another business that accommodates laziness. Poultry is hard work oh, but you get good returns for your labor. Sure!If you are determined and have a dream,pursue that dream regardless of the risks involved and the experiences of others.If someone has failed in a venture, is that an indication that you will also fail?
6) In chicken farming, you will make money but to make the money, you must pay close attention to details, be highly observant and observe strict hygiene among other practices.If you cannot pay the price to do what is required in chicken farming, PLEASE and PLEASE, do not do the business.Find another business to invest your time,money and energy in.As good as the chicken business is, it is not for everyone who thinks he has the money.
For you to have faster access to some of the posts on this blog, click on the link below:
But endeavor to read all the 34 posts before you take any step or spend a cent on the business. Scroll up or down the blog as the case may be to access all the 34 posts for free.
There are 8 informative poultry reports on this blog addressing different aspects in the business for persons starting small. One of the reports is Report 4 ‘Cost Analysis for Setup of a 1000 Layers Chicken Farm’ in MS Word Format. This report was updated again in January 2014 and now contains the profit and loss account from one month’s operation in a 1000 layers chicken farm.
Please note that there are no exaggerations or hypes in the report. The profit expectation is the worst case scenario in a well-managed layers chicken farm. To further explain the figures in the report, another report, Working Notes (Report 8) has been written to teach you how to do the calculations by yourself. This blog teaches do-it-yourself.
Another version is Report 7 ‘Profit Analysis for Set Up of a 1000 layers Chicken farm’ in MS Excel Format. The figures in Report 4 and 7 are the same but the presentation is different. The Report 8 (Working Notes) explains the calculations in both. To access any of these reports if you want them, click the link below:
To see the breakdown of the contents in Report 7, click the link the link:
You do not need to have both reports 4 and 7. Any of them, along with the Working Notes (Report 8) will get the message across clearly. But if you are curious, you may have both the Report 4 and 7 along with other reports in one order. Visit the link http://wp.me/p11ziB-Ca for details.
The Broiler Chicken Report (Number 2) has been updated with some costing analysis. I have offloaded too many details on this blog already.Create time to digest all the 34 posts to get informed about the business and know whether it is the business for you in 2014. Every detail that you need is here
This is the 25th post on this poultry blog for the benefit of people especially Nigerians who wish to set up a chicken farming business which is one of the most viable businesses in Nigeria with a large and guaranteed market.
If you are a first timer on this blog,please read all the 30+ loaded free posts below that will make a big positive difference when you set up a poultry farm.On this informative blog you get the details required for free and cannot miss your way in the business if you can add diligence to the equation.
Testimonies have been coming in from some readers who courageously set up based on the resources on this blog.One of them,Mr Jide Makinde, based in Ibadan was published in one of the posts below.Another is Mr Musa Usman in Kano who set up with 514 layers and several others.Mr Usman’s comment in the Comments section of this blog is as follows:
Happy birthday Mr John. I would never forget your valuable advise and educative materials that really helped us in setting up our farm. For your information, at exactly sixth months today, our birds are still doing well with mortality rate at just 2.1% and producing the golden eggs. We would always be grateful to you.
Another blog reader,Mr Lekan (email@example.com) who got the reports sent the following mail to me recently:
‘I saw one of your mail where you asked if i had started my poultry farm. Thanks for the concern i started long ago August 2012 with 1000 birds and today we have 3500 birds.
I have the opinion that our oil wealth came much too early when Nigerians were yet to imbibe the spirit of accountability and hard work.As a result, agriculture was abandoned and today, what do we have to show for our 40+ years of oil resources?
Massive corruption,massive unemployment and a get-rich quick mentality! Agriculture alone can swallow our unemployment in this country.Countries like Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia that concentrated on agriculture have overtaken us economically.
I read on the net recently about how a Nigerian company was recruiting 100 graduates for their Graduate Truck Driver Scheme and about 10,000 graduates applied including 6 PhD holders! It shocked me to the bones that a PhD holder was ready to take to truck driving in the name of earning a salary.That is the product of failed minds,not a failed country.
It is time we go back to agriculture and stop roaming the streets looking for non-existing or elusive white collar jobs.One of the problems we have in this clime is that Nigerians do not want to start small even when there are no funds to start big.
Secondly,their reading culture is poor. The knowledge that will improve your life is buried in books.
Thirdly is that the education that will transform and profit you must cost you something.There is no free lunch in Freetown.Those after free information often get the wrong one and make silly avoidable mistakes in the sensitive chicken farming business.Chicken farming is not recharge card business.Chicken farming is specialized information.
Weeks ago,a farmer in the Eastern part of Nigeria called to say that his chickens were dying in large numbers at about 4 weeks old.The cause was coccidiosis, a dreaded chicken disease, better prevented than cured.He, the owner was the problem. How? They were not changing the litter and in fact they did not change it for weeks!
He said that his farm adviser(consultant) did not tell him about litter management,so i learned from the discussion.He expected the farm attendants to know.If he, the farm owner did not know, how would the farm attendant know? Who gives instructions to the farm attendant?
If it was true,then the farm adviser erred by not letting them know about effective litter management to prevent coccidiosis.This farmer reads this blog where litter management has been discussed in one or two posts below.Diligence was missing and is a strong factor to success in this business.
It is one of the central messages of this blog that the farm owner should know much about the business before starting the farm.If you know,the better for you because it means that your staff or consultant cannot take you for a ride.I keep saying it that the farm owner should go the extra mile to get properly informed in the business.
There are about 30 detailed posts on this blog that teaches you what you should know in the business.I assure you that in these posts, you have what it takes to do the business well.
The 7 poultry reports on this blog are straight to the point,made as simple as 123, not those voluminous reports that often contain abstracts you cannot understand. Please visit the blog post below titled ‘Basic Reports for Starters’ dated 29.11.2010 for full content and details of the reports and how to access them.
You may not set up a farm now, maybe have an intention to do so in future, but may get the 6 poultry reports now.This is the best offer now that you can get these reports on this blog.
Report 7 is a profit & cost analysis for set up of 1000 layers chicken farm prepared on MS Excel Workbook.You may visit Post 18 below titled ‘Profitability Analysis for Starters’ for the contents of Report 7.It is the Excel Version of Report 4(Cost Analysis Report) but much more detailed.
This blog contains 30+ posts for the benefit of starters in Nigeria interested in small chicken farming setup and who need some information about the business. If you are one, you are advised to patiently read all the posts on this blog from November 2010 to September 2013. Doing so,you will have a full grasp of the business,what it takes to do it before spending a penny on it.
In this post, i am discussing the market for poultry products.Nigeria has a population of 150 million and is grossly under provided in terms of proteins which is an essential food component for healthy living.
Statistics from the Federal Office of Statistics and Food & Agricultural Organization indicate that 2Kg of beef and 4kg of eggs are available to the average Nigerian yearly. That is about 11 grams of egg supply per day when compared with the global accepted recommendation that one person take an egg per day.
To address this protein problem, there is urgent need for massive production of protein based foods in Nigeria at prices that the average Nigerian can afford in view of the economic realities.
One of the avenues to achieve the goal is through poultry farming which constitutes chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks, guinea fowls etc. The chickens constitute about 70% of the poultry population in Nigeria therefore the term ‘poultry farming’ is used generally to refer to chicken farming in Nigeria. The major poultry products are eggs and meat.
There is a high demand for poultry products in Nigeria during festivals such as Christmas, New Year, Easter, Id El Fitri, Id El Kabir and others.Fast foods operators, hotels, caterers, restaurants, supermarkets are also major outlets.
Eggs have a variety of uses apart from the household consumption.It is used in the preparation of chicken burger, scotch eggs, salad, baked foods, hair shampoo,ice creams, custard, beverages, snacks and cakes etc. Other outlets include hawkers, retail stores,roadside breakfast canteens,boarding hostels and individuals and many other channels.
The bulk supply of eggs comes from small farmers who operate largely home backyard farms containing small holdings of about 100 to 1000 chickens.However, there are big players such as Animal Care Konsult,Obasanjo Farms,CHI Farms, Amo Sanders, Choice Farms,Sambawa Farms, Arewa Farms, UAC Foods and Zartech Limited and others that cannot be listed here.Nevertheless, supply is still lower than demand.Therefore, the egg market is essentially a seller’s market in Nigeria.
This is the 7th post of this blog.
Are you going into poultry farming business for the first time?For you to do poultry farming successfully, certain essentials must be noted about the business.The factors are many and very important.There are successes in the business just as there are failures too in it as in any other business.
The major difference between a success and a failure in poultry farming is information and determination! The quality of information at the disposal of the farmer and the will to follow through matters much and makes much difference.
I will discuss some of the essentials on this blog for the benefit of starters for whom this blog was set up.The full detail is in the poultry reports. Before i go into the essentials, i want to discuss a bit about broiler farming as all the previous posts focused on layer farming business.
The fastest way to make money or to recoup your investment in poultry farming is through broiler chicken farming.Broilers are for meat production and can reared for 5-7-12 weeks.At 5-7 weeks, you can sell them to fast food companies.
The chicken business that will provide you with steady cash flow, daily income over a longer period of time and the more lucrative is layer farming for egg production.However, layer farming is more stressful and more capital intensive than broiler farming. You will rear layers for up to 18- 20-22 weeks before egg production starts and you will maintain them for another 15-18 months on the farm.
If you are supplying broilers to a fast food company, then you must have the financial resources to produce in thousands and regularly too.If you have a small budget, you can rear about 50-100 broilers in your backyard at home and sell at 12 weeks.You can rear them to target a festive period such as Christmas.
If you are rearing a small flock for Christmas, you should start by mid August to first week September and by mid-December, they are ready for sale.Then start selling from December 23 to January 1st.This is the period you can get the best possible prices.Endeavor to sell all by January 1 because,by the following day,January 2nd the prices may crash when demand falls.
If price crashes below your cost of production and you continue to feed the birds,that means you are making a loss.This means that you should produce what you can sell and have to put in extra effort to locate your own market.With good farm management and market strategy,100% profit is assured.
In the layer farming business,once your chickens have commenced egg production,look for 5 egg retailers to tell within or outside your neighborhood..Within few days or weeks, you will see a stream of customers whom you did not tell knocking on your door asking for eggs.The market for eggs is very large.
The third type, the cockerel chicken reared for meat production goes through the same rearing processes as the layers and broilers.The three types have different vaccination schedules.The cockerel is a more rugged bird than the layers and broilers and can survive many odds much better than the others if properly vaccinated from inception.
If you are rearing a few broilers and cockerel as a backyard farmer,it is advised that you target a festival period where demand will be high and you can get good prices that will fetch you a clean profit.
The chicken farming business is real good business.Then, it is not as easy as it seems.It is a sensitive business but the risk is manageable.It requires hard work and prompt attention to details.For example,to do well in broiler farming, there are about four main challenges you must solve to have smooth farming operations.Get the details from the Broiler Chicken Farming Report on this blog
The opportunities and potentials in poultry farming are many.Some of the opportunities are as follows:
1) Selling livestock feeds: Livestock feeds are in high demand in the market. It sells very well.Register with the major producers and you can set up as a retailer, wholesaler or distributor depending on their terms.Major ones include Topfeed, Boar Feeds, Sanders Feeds, Cornerstone Feeds and Livestock Feeds. There are many other brands in the market.
2)Producing livestock feed:You can set up a feed mill in your backyard and produce chicken feed for farmers. You need to know the correct nutritional proportions that make up the feed for the different stages of development of the chickens. For instance, the feed composition ratios for layers (1 day to 8 weeks) is different from the feed composition from 9 weeks to 20 weeks. The report on how to compound the feed for layers and broilers and the feed mill set up is available on this blog.
3) Sell Poultry vaccines and drugs to farmers.
4) Sell Battery Cages (new and fairly used.The battery cage business is good business in Nigeria. If you have the resources to import them, do it. It costs about $120.00 to $150.00 abroad to buy a unit and sold here for N70,000.00 to N100,000.00 per unit.You pay no custom duties on them.
You can look for farmers who have used or old battery cages to sell, buy them and resell.You can get old cages for less than N20,000.00 and sell for N35,000.00 per unit.If you have storage space, you are in business.You can also be a broker linking buyers and sellers and get a commission on sales.
5)Sell other poultry equipment such as steel feeders,drinkers, egg crates etc.
6) Rear day old chickens up to 6 weeks and sell them to farmers. Many newbies are scared of rearing day old. It is a little difficult to rear day old because the brooding stage (1 day to 6 weeks) is the most critical stage in the life of a chicken requiring experienced handling and management.
You can acquire the experience, know how to rear day old chickens and sell them to others.5-6 week old layer chickens are in high demand too.You need to a cost analysis of this venture to determine the profitability before you do it. The Cost Analysis Report on this blog guides you into that.
7)You can rear the chickens and sell them at age 15-18 weeks as point-of-lay birds.There is high demand for point-of-lay birds by farmers who do not want to go through the stress of rearing chickens from day old to egg laying maturity. Many starters go for point-of-lay chickens.Do a cost analysis of this venture before you set up.
8) Set up as an egg supplier.There are companies who need eggs in large quantities usually hundreds or thousands of crates.Get the supply contract and source the eggs from farmers who have them.Do a market analysis first.Know the farm price, the minimum order, the cost of transportation and the price to sell to the client and your profit.
This post is the second on this blog.
In poultry farming,feed costs is the major overhead.For a beginner,it is wise to count the cost before starting out.You should know how much it will cost you to feed a certain number of chickens for a given period for instance,how much to feed day old chickens from day one to about 18-22 weeks that egg production is expected to commence.
It is either you use ready made feeds to feed your chickens or you formulate your own feed which could be cheaper for you but the cost effectiveness of feed formulation plan depends on your scale of operations.
If you are a newbie and want to have knowledge(an informed opinion) of what it takes to do this business, you may get our recommended reports on layer and broiler chicken farming. As an intending investor,you need set-up estimates to have an idea of the financial outlay especially the feeding cost from day one to 22 weeks and beyond.You should know how to make a realistic income forecast taking into account the general rule in egg production and its exceptions to arrive at a reasonable estimate.
I learnt of a farmer who went into poultry business rearing layers.He did not count the cost before starting the farm.He started their feeding with commercial feeds.Along the way, he became cash strapped.He panicked by changing the feed but without proper guidance.He changed abruptly to a cheaper feed which was probably wrongly formulated.
At the end of the day,the chickens egg production was too poor due to the abrupt change in their feed.It was a disastrous outing as he had to close down and sell off in frustration at a huge loss.Before changing their feed,get proper counsel from an animal nutritionist and better still make adequate financial provision to feed the birds for at least 22 weeks.To formulate your own feed on your own farm,consult a nutritionist for advice.
This is the 1st of 35 highly informative posts on this blog about poultry farming business created for Nigerians. Poultry farming is lucrative in Nigeria but also a sensitive business. However, the sensitivity is manageable and the message of this blog is to encourage you to set up a small chicken farm.
In Nigeria, the market is very large and the market for eggs is price inelastic. Do not allow anyone to deceive you to invest in it, making you believe that it is an easy road or a get-rich -quick route without sweat because it is not. However, there is assurance that if well managed from inception, it will provide you with a steady regular source of income. Guaranteed!
There are three types of chickens in the context of this blog. There are the pullets commonly known as layers in Nigeria and are reared for egg production and the most lucrative. The second type is the broiler chicken for meat production. The third type is the cockerel also reared for meat production.
It requires having the right knowledge to be able to do the right things at the right time to get the right results. It requires hard work and prompt attention to details. Starting small is the best way to enter and learn the business. You may start with as low as 100-500 chickens depending on your pocket to learn it. If you can operate 100-500 chicks successfully, then you can do any number of chickens. What you will learn from 100-500 chickens tells you whether you can cope with larger numbers. That is one of the ways to know how to cross the bridge before getting there.
Before you go into any business ask yourself,’ what knowledge or skill or experience am i bringing into this business? Provide a sincere answer to it but if you cannot, just suspend that plan and go look for knowledge through apprenticeship or formal schooling or self development avenues such as books and manuals on the topic.
To have an informed opinion of poultry farming, the following poultry reports are recommended. But please read all the posts on this blog before taking a decision to get any of the following reports:
1) How to set up and operate a profitable poultry (layer) farm in Nigeria (A Beginner’s guide) N2500.00
2) How to set up and operate a profitable broiler chicken farm (A Starter’s Guide) N2500.00.Updated in June 2014 with the profit analysis for rearing a broiler to 7 weeks.
3) The third report is titled ‘Compounded Feed Mix for layers & broilers (A Beginner’s Guide) for details, see post on Feed Plans & Costs above. N3500.00
4)The 4th report, recently updated in February 2013, is a Cost of Operations analysis for set up of 1000 layers chicken farm and includes the following:
a) The basics of egg production figures in layers chickens:
it explains how to make realistic egg revenue projection, not bogus figures based on common wrong assumptions. And it explains the general rule in egg production and the six exceptions to the rule apply to arrive at realistic egg projections which many Nigerians are not aware of, or do not understand, and which makes a huge difference in poultry farming management.
b) The food consumption of a layers chicken in kg from day old age to 56 days old
The food consumption of a layers chicken in kg from 57 days old to 140 days old
The food consumption level of a layers chicken in kg from day age 141 days to end of egg production
c) The cost and breakdown of equipment required to set up a 1000 bird layers farm
d) How to calculate the feeding cost on a daily, weekly and monthly basis.
e) The principles or rules guiding feeding in layers chickens
f) The principles that determine profitability in layers chickens
The cost is N3500.00
5) The 5th report is Chicken Disease Control &Drug Administration Report which discusses the more common poultry diseases affecting chickens in Nigeria to watch out for (cause, symptoms, treatment &prevention). Also, a guidance on vaccine administration from day 1 to end of egg production. It costs N2500.00
6) The 6th report is a valuable report which discuss the following details:
A)The factors to note before setting up a home backyard
B) The 22 major variables to take note of in poultry farming
C) How to address the loop in egg production that farm staff can exploit to your disadvantage
D) Other atrocities committed by farm staffs and dishonest consultants that can cause losses & preventive measures
E)Recommended places to get some poultry products and services.
The cost is N2500.00. If you are interested in layer farming, this 6th report is an essential, in addition to Report 1(layer report) above.
There is no duplication of the free content in all the blog posts in any of the 6 reports above. You are getting real value for your investment…Guaranteed.
7) Report 7 is a Profitability Analysis for 12 months for a 1000 layers laid out on MS Excel format. It is similar to report 4 but is a more detailed analysis. See blog post 18 above titled ‘Profit Analysis for Starters’ for full details of the contents.It complements Report 4.The cost is N5000.00. It also has the broiler profit analysis from day old to 7 weeks.
8) The Work Notes: That teach you in full detail how to do the calculations based on principles that determine profit and loss and the factors to take note of.Those farms that make a loss are always guilty of violating at least one of these factors.Exposes you to how to make a budget before you start. The cost is N5000.00.
In addition to the 8 reports above are the following five important site plan bonuses:
A) Picture Guide: A standard layout design of a poultry farm.With this, no need troubling yourself about the layout of the farm buildings and facilities.
B)Breakdown of materials/cost of constructing a Chicken Pen.
C)Picture Guide: Dimensions for Arrangement of Battery Cages in the Chicken Pen
D)Picture Guide: Chicken Pen Layout design for a 5000 capacity farm (showing the setup of flushing system within the pen + specific measurements)
E) Cockerel Vaccine Report
F) Poultry Waste Management Report
The flexible purchase options are as follows:
Pick any of the reports 1 to 6 at their stated individual prices either N2500 or N3500.00 or N5000.00 as applicable.But Report 7 & 8 go together.
The total cost of reports 1-6 above is N17000.00 being the summation of the individual prices.
Basically, you need only Report 1,4 & 6 to set up a layers chicken business and they cost N6500.00
OR OPTION 2:
Pay N13500.00 for Reports 1 to 6 in one order and get the 6 bonuses A to F(i.e one report for free + the 6 bonuses).
Pay N20000.00 for Reports 1 to 8 & the 6 bonuses A to F in one order (i.e 2 of the reports worth N7000.00 for free + the 6 bonuses).
The total package is the best and the cheapest in terms of content and cost for a Nigerian starter. With the wealth of information in these reports on this blog, no starter in Nigeria can have any problem anymore about setting up a profitable poultry farm in Nigeria. The only reason for failure is planning to fail by ignoring the unique details in the reports on this blog.
Please, read the testimony of Mr. Jide Makinde in blog post 16 above, who utilizing this blog’s free resources and only 2 of the 8 poultry reports, confidently set up a farm in Ibadan. If he can do it, anyone can. Where there is a will and the right resources, there is a way. With the details in these reports, you can set up your own farm without engaging a consultant.
Make the payment to First Bank Nigeria Account number 2017277846 ( JO & EL VENTURES.
Text payment details(name, email address, deposit number, amount paid and name of report(s) paid for) to 2348035978352 and the report(s)will be forwarded to your mailbox. You read the reports or print from your mailbox. Please, there are no hard copies!
You may elect not to get these reports. You may get your own information available elsewhere. But in your own interest, please get adequate knowledge and be properly informed about poultry farming operations before you invest a penny in it. There are farmers out there groping in the dark in the business. Getting a seasoned consultant or an experienced farmer to guide you is wise advice and you will not regret it if you do. It is essential that you have your own independent knowledge and that is what this blog does for you.
It is an interesting business to do and rewarding but knowledge is very essential in this business if you do not want to end up in frustration. Do not enter the business blindly but with your eyes wide open. The 8 reports above as well as the free content in the 35 blog posts will open your eyes to know what to do and what to avoid in the business. Information is power only when you know it and apply it.
Some starters who are ‘wise’ in their own eyes will refuse to pay insignificant amounts for the information that will work the business yet can go ahead to spend huge sums of money on the business in total ignorance. When things do not work out as expected and the farm fails, they go about with a tale of woe to discourage others.
To ”wisely” save N2500.00 but foolishly throw N million down the drain, ignorant of the insights which would have made a difference, is the mindset of some penny-wise, pound-foolish Nigerians who have dabbled into the business and have burnt their fingers. It is wiser to limit your investment at N2500.00 to learn the business, than to ‘save’ it, then lose hundreds of thousands on the wrong route that leads nowhere.
Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired from the reports remains an asset as you will be able to make intelligent contributions anywhere chicken farming is discussed.